DROPDOWN MENU

18 March 2014

7/2014 Tihmakmawh

KRISTIANNA LEH ENVIRONMENT HUMHALH

Thaizawl : Zorama Mau
Environment chu thil siam tihna a ni :
Pathianin lei leh van A siam khan lei hi a chhia-in a ruak vek a (Gen 1.1-2) Khawvela engmah awm lo kha ni ruk chhung hnathawkin a siam a, thil siam nana A hun hman rei zawng enin thil siam te hi intluktlang vek kan ni a. A thil siam te zingah erawh chuan Thlarau nei  mihringte chu A dah chungnungin, chung A thil siam te enkawltu atan chuan mihringte min ruat ta a ni. A thil siam te chu an boral mai phal lo vin, Nova lawng hmangin  nen a rualin min chhan chhuak a, chimit lo vin khawvelah kan la cheng ho thei ta a nih hi(1) Kan chhehvela awm te chu min hualveltu an ni a, a French tawngin "Environ" tih an hmang a, Environment (Min hualveltu) tih tawngkam a lo chhuak ta a ni. Kan chhehvela awm hmuh theih leh hmuh theih loh thleng hian a huam a.(2)  Hrilhfiahna dang rawn lo vin,  Bible tawngkam takin, "Thil siam te  hi Environment an ni" tihna a nih chu. Tun tumah hian ramngaw, thing leh mau, nungcha; leilung chhunga cheng kan hmuh theih leh hmuh theih loh thlur bingin, kan khawtlang huapa tangkai tur en ila.




Pathian thil siamah chuan “Hei hi a tangkai lo; a hnawksak a ni” tih sawi tur nei kan awm a nih chuan Theologian ropui emaw, Critic tha tak emaw, philosopher  ril tak emaw, an ni ngei ang. A thil siam te hi duhtak leh inbuktawna  inhnerem turin a siam a, engkim hi a mawi phah a ni.  Mihringte duhna leh mamawhna hian chinlem a nei lo a, duhamnaa khat kan nih avang leh mahni hmasial avangin thil siamte suasam kan ching a. A sawhkhawk leh a nghawng ngaihtuah lo va thil siamte chimit a, kan tihchereu thin rahchhuah chu kan chungah, kan tu leh fa te chungah a la tla ngei ang.

Thil siam zinga rawngbawl tur kan ni :
Lal Isua thupek ropui ber, "Khawvel zawng zawngah kal ula, thil siam zawng zawng hnenah chuan chanchin tha hi hril rawh u” (Marka 16.15) tih kha kan zawm thei lo a nih pawhin ‘thupek ropui ber’ kalh zawnga hmalak awm thin hian kan rawngbawlna hi a thai chhe thin khawp mai. Tawngka leh ziak, Media hmanga Chanchin tha hrilh theih a ni lo a. Kan chetzia hmanga lantir hi a tawk a, thil siam te pawhin "sawi lo mahse an lantir thin an hram ri leh an hnah uaiin" tih pi Nuchhungi hla hian a phawkchhuak zo hle. 

Siamtu min pek hlut nachang hriat :
A neitu chuan nihna (ownership) a nei a, kan ta a ni a, enkawl nghal tura thupek kan ni bawk. Mawhphurhna kan neih rualin tih tur kan nei a, inzawmna thuk tak kan nei nghal a ni. Khawvela thil siam te enkawl tura dan (Law) siam, tha taka zawm tur hian kristian tluka inhmeh hi a awm awm lo e. A neitu leh A siamtu chuan mihring te, thil siam dang te hi tha a ti em em a, duhtakin a enkawl a, A thlahthlam ngai lo. Daifim hi thlai thanlenna atana pawimawh tak a ni ang hian; Lebanon tlanga vurtlang leh Bangladesh Mire hnam hian inzawmna nghet tak an nei a. Thil siam te hian nghet taka inkungkaihna a nei vek. Pathianin duh taka a siam chu Pathian rilru hrereng chungin kan enkawl tur a ni. Thalaite zinga sum leh pai, tha leh zung senga kan thil siam roh a, hlut lo kan awm em? Mahni thil neih hlutna chang hre lo leh enkawl tum lo chu mi puitling, hruaitu tha a awm theih loh.

Mizote nun leh thil siam inkungkaihna :
Hmanlai Mizo khawtlang nuna thilsiam; ramngaw, thing leh mau nena inlaichinna chungchang hi tam tak sawi tura awm a. Huan lo ram an \hehin mahni duhna hmunah lo/leipui an vat ngawt ngai lo, Lo hal huna tul lo ram kangchhe tur venna chikhat atana a ni a, a huhova hnathawh an duh vang pawh a ni bawk. Ramsa leh sava no neih laiin an that mai mai ngai lo a, a chi tur zuah lovin an suat rem ngai hek lo. Kan rama Kristianna lo luh chhan pawh hi sai ram chhuahna leh hnamdang laka him duh vang a ni. Ramngaw leh leilung chereu nasa lutuk kha mizo lal ten an ngaimawh a, ramngaw humhalh nan leh mingo pung zel ven nan Alexendrapur kha run a ni. (the mizo thought that they were merely freaks of nature, and were later surprised to find white men were so numerous - JM LLoyd3)Lu chhum ban chhum huama kan ram an humhalh kawngah hian fak an phu a, chhung lam leh pawn lam a\anga ram tichereu a, daidarhtu kan neih do tura Mizo lal hrang hrang huikhawmtu Bengkhuaia rorelna hi a fakawm hle. (The invasion in 1871 was organised invasion carried out with the forces of different chief put together. It is not a very common even in the history of Mizoram when the chiefs assembled together to fight a common enemy)4 Kan hnamzia leh kalphung pawh a inthlakthleng hlauh a ni. 

Kristian i nih avanga i mawhphurhna :
Kristian rama chhal theih turin Pathian malsawmna leh harhna thlarau kan chang a, kan vannei hle. Genesis 1.28-a kan hmuh angin thilsiam chungah thuneihna zau tak min pe a. India rama kan awm chhung chuan  India danpui hi zawm a, zah tur kan ni. Danpui-ah chuan  “India khua leh tui zawng zawng te chuan kan chenna leilung leh a chhunga awm; ramngaw te, lui te, dil te, nungcha te chungah hmangaihna a lantir ngei ngei tur a ni" tiin tarlan a ni5. Khua leh tui  tha ni tura dan zawm hi a Pathian thu hle. Hei vang pawh hian thil siam te hi humhalh tur kan ni. Mihringte chu kan inenkawlna a mumal zawk theih nan roreltu, dan siamtu leh kengkawhtu thlan chhuah a lo ni thin a. Roreltute thu thu-a awm turin Pathianin min hrilh si a ( Rom 13.1) 

Kan khawtlang dinhmun :
Kum 20 kal ta kha chuan tlawng hnar tui a kang an tih chuan mak an ti hle a. Tunah chuan Tlawng hnar kang chu ngaiah kan neih tawh a nih hi. Ramngaw chereu vang te, mihring pun vang te pawh a ni thei.  Mipui kan pung a, tui hna a kang zel a, tui kan indaih ta lo tih kan hre theuh awm e. Sorkara Connection supply nghak mai thin, vui leh hreh miah si lo kan tam a ni. Tu nge mahni tuikhur hnara thingphun a, enkawl zui awm? Hauhuk chu a hualreu \hin tih hria, a hram ri benga la hre ngai miah lo tleirawl an tam chhan hi an chenna kan tichhia a, kan thah \hin vang a ni. Heti ang zela kan kal chuan Kum 2050 kan thleng anga nungcha za zela 30 hi chu an bo/rem dawn a ni6. Mau rap emaw, RCC emaw hmanga in sa hian thing leh mau ngaihtuah dan an hre tawh lo a, Burma thingzai lei mai an tintuah thum tawh a ni. Thing leh mau, leilung chhiat avangin leimin a tam a, leimin avanga thinthi-a mu thei tawh lo an tam hle. Invenna ngaihtuah leh humhalh tum si lo hian Silpauline dil dan chiah kan thiam phah a ni lawm ni? Leilung kal ral tur humhalh nan leh khawtlang thianghlim zawk nana tui luankawr siam tha a, tifai peih reng kan awm ta lo hian tuihawk kawng bo a siam a, leimin a tam phah bawk. VC leh YMA tih tur a ni lo a, MGNREGS hmanga thawh atana khek hi a Kristian lo a ni. Polythene leh plastic kaihhnawih a chhuak tam tual tual a, mahni kawtkaia halral hmasak ai chuan bawlhhlawh bawma khung nghal mai thin an pung a. A changkang lo zual phei chuan khawlaiah an la paih thin nia!! Chuti anga ti hreh deuh, changkang ve deuha inngai chuan tuiluankawr lamah an theh thang mai thin. 

Thil siam te hi humhalh a ngai tawh :
Hmasawnna leh changkanna hi a zuanin a zuang tawh a, chung hmasawnna chuan khawvel hi a tichhe zel a. Hmasawnna a awm hian hmasawnna dang lo awm tur emaw a tichhia a nih chuan hmasawnna khingbai, hmasawnna tluan tling lo a ni. Hmasawnna project thawh a nihin thilsiam dangte a tihchereu dan ngaihtuah hmasa lovin an thawk ngai tawh lo a. Thil siam, thing leh mau etc., a tihchhiat tlem theih dan tur ngaihtuah hmasa lo vin an thawk ngai tawh lo. Chuti ang a lo awm pawha dodal ngam Kristian kan nih hi a hun tawh a ni. Khawvel nuam zawk siam tura fuihna hla tha tak tak, thuziak \ha tak tak, lemchan leh lemziah te a piang chhuak teuh tawh a. Khawvel nuam siam tur chuan thil siam ten zalenna mihringte tluka an neih hian intluktlanna (Justices) a lo thleng ang.

North East India-a chanchinbu mite intawhkhawmah chuan State hrang hranga Press mite chu an State-a Environment chhiat tawh dan leh a nghawng te sawi turin sawm a ni a. Mizoram atanga kal, Aizawl Weekly Editor Pakhat chuan "Sawi tur tam ka hre lo a, mahse, hmanlai atanga kan hunbi chhiarna Ar khuang, leng len hun, khawvar leh hunbi mila hram dan kha hriat tur a  awm tawh lo a. Ruah sur dan a mumal tawh hek lo a. Sik leh sa hunbi chhiar na mumal a awm tawh lo" tiin a sawi a.7  A ni tak a,  zirbingna leh an hmuhchhuah tam tak hian min la nghawng ve lo a ni mai thei a, Khuarel hunbi chhiar dan leh a kalphung erawh a danglam tial tial a nih hi.

Khawvel a chhe tual tual :
A kum telin kan khawvel hi  a lum tual tual (Global warming tiin an sawi bawk) a, Tlang leh thliarkara vurte hi a tui nasa zel a, tuihu (vapour) a tam phaha a, Tuihu avangin vur ramah (Polar region) Vur a tlak nasat phah a, vur a nasat chuan a tui leh nasa zual a, tuifinriat chim chin a ti sang zel a ni. Kum zabi 20na chhung khan 12-13cm in sang a, Kum zabi 21-ah chuan 20-140 cm-a sang turin World Mateoroligal Organisation (WMO) chuan a chhut lawk a ni. US Environment Protection chuan Kum 2025 chhung hian 11-21cm-in a sang dawn niin a chhut bawk. Heti a nih chuan Maldives, Bangladesh ram \henkhat te, India leh Pacific thliarkar tam tak hi chu khawvel map atanga thaibo a ngai dawn a, tuifinriatin a chim dawn tihna a ni8

Lei leh van siam a nih khan a chhia a, a ruak ngawtin a awm tih kan hria a, a ruak a nih loh pawhin thlaler ang maia ro-in kan awm hun hi a la thleng lo ang tih a sawi theih loh. Kum 4004 BC khan khawvel hi siam niin chhuttu \henkhat chuan an chhut a9. Kum sangbi pawh ni lo. Kum zabi 10 vel her leh se, kan khawvel hi chenna tlak a ni dawn tawh lo. Chuti ang em a thlen loh pawhin Alfred Wegner-a theory ang mai hian kan khawmualpuite hi Mihringte kut thlak vang emaw, eng emaw avanga kehdarhin khawvel nihphung hi a danglam dawrh hian a rinawm thin10

Thil siam humhalh dan chi hnih :
Mihring kan pung a, kan hmasawnna hian thil siam te a nek chhe tual tual a, mi thiamte lu a hai a, mutmawhah an neih ta, an mangang a nih hi. Sum leh pai, tha leh zung tam tak sengin thil siam te humhalh nan an hmang a ni. Chutih lai chuan thil siam te humhalh tura thlirdan chi hnih tarlang ila11; Thlirna pakhat chu, mihringte hian khuarel kalphung hi an tibuai tur a ni lo a, thil siam dangte kalphung milin kan insiamrem ve tur a ni (chu chu preservative approach an ti). Mahse, hmasawnna leh kan duhamna nunphung ngaihtuah chuan a theih loh tluk a ni. Thlirdan dangah chuan, khuarel kalphung hi a uchuaka tihchhiat (Over exploitation) a awm tur a ni lo a, hmasawnna tluantling awm turin leilung hausakna hi hman a tul reng a, chumi avang chuan tangkai leh renchem taka hman a tul tawh a ni (chu chu conservative approach an ti). Kan ram leh hnam dinhmun hrereng chunga a  uchuaka tihchhiat nei lo tura hma kan lak hi a hun tawh a, humhalh ngam turin kan huaisen tur a ni.

Engtinnge humhalh turin hma kan lak ang :
Mite hmasawnna leh changkanna hi kan tluk lo a, thil siam dang kan tihchhiat dan pawh a nep deuh a ni thei e. Zirbingna leh hmuhchhuah tam tak, thawnthu leh entir nei tha tak tak pawh a tam hle a. (Amah erawhchu, buatsaihtu lamin tul lo ni-a an hriat avangin tarlang lo mai ila.) Kan khawtlang ngaihtuah chungin thawh nghal theih tur tarlang dawn ila. Thil siam te humhalh turin hengte hi tihlawhtlin i tum ang u. 

1. Ramngaw humhalh hi tihmakmawh a ni :- Ni tina kan mamawh, eirawngbawl nana kan thingtuah hi tihtlem ngawt theih a ni lo a. Thing leh mau, thlai ten boruak thianghlim Oxygen min pek (137 Cubic Metre) hi a man chhut dawn ila, hip tur nei lo hi kan tam hle ang12. Shillong luh dawna Thuziak pakhat, ka ngaihtuah reng thin chu "Conserve Forest, Use Electricity" tih a ni. Ramngaw humhalhna atan Electric Current hmang tam turin an inzirtir tawh a. Heater leh bungraw dang hi eirawngbawlna leh thildanga hman turin Electric supply nei reng ila, tunge harsa tak chunga thingtuah la turin ramhnuaiah kal reng peih ang le? Power supply hniang hnar nei tur hian MLA Vote thlak hunah te, sorkar tanpuia an tha tihchak kawngah te rilru thar i pu ang u. Thingtuah tur kan lak aia nasa hian kan lo neih hian ramngaw a tichhe tam a, lo neih bansan turin sorkarin hma a la a, NLUP etc avang hian lo vah leh ramngaw tihchereu a tlem dawn avangin NLUP etc hlawhtlintir tum ila,  ramngaw kan humhalh thei ang. Tin, Sumdawnna atana thingzai leh hralh hian ramngaw a tichhe zual a, mamawh leh chak lak nana kan hmang a nih loh chuan khap atul hle. Environment & Forest Dept phal loh, a ruk a ral a bei thin hi mipui hmelma an ni a, eirukna chikhat a ni. Kristian chuan a do ngam tur a ni.


2. Ramkang/Kangmei chhuah loh :-
Kan lo neih (Shifting Cultivation) avanga ramngaw kang chhia hi pumpelh a har hle. Ramkang avanga thing leh mau chereu nge Lo hal avanga chereu tih hriat a harsa hle. Lo neih thlakna tur \ha a awm hma chuan kan la hal kang duai duai ang. Meikawng sial tha peih lo kristian nih a inhmeh ta lo. Fimkhur loh vang leh inthlahdah vanga ramkang hi tihtlem theih a ni a, ramkang pawh \helh theih a ni. Ramkang thelha kal peih lo,tul ti lo tlat kristian kan awm em? Kal ve chhun pawha vawi te khat pawh mei si hlap lo kan awm thin hi kan ngaihpawimawh loh vang leh a tulna kan la hriat tawk loh vang a ni.

3. Tui hna humhalh :- April 2002 khan Cronicos de las tempos chuan APJ Abdul Kalama lehkha a tarlang a. Kum 2070 a lo thlen chuan kum 50 a ni dawn a, mahse kum 85 hmelpu-in a lang a. Kum 2070-ah chuan Tui in tur a tlem avangin kal natna a vei a, hmeichhe sam mawi tak kha enkawl a theih loh avangin ziah kawlh a lo ngai tawh ang a, hlawh atana pawisa aiin tui hlawhchhuah an duh zawk ang a. Ni khata tui no riat mamawh kan ni a, mahse tui no chanve chauh in tura thupek kan ni tawh ang a. chutih hunah chuan chakna avangin kum 35 hi kan dam thleng hram turin a chhut/suangtuah a ni13. Tun dinhmunah hian mihring kan pung a, tui kan mamawh tam tulh tulh a, kan tuihna te hi a kang hma ta hle. Humhalh tur chuan thing leh mau humhalh tha-in, thingphun uar ila. Lui hnar leh a bul hnai-ah bawlhhlawh paih lo a, In tih fai nana kan hman, sahbawn leh chemicals keng tel thil te hi tuikhur bul leh a chhehvelah luan chhuah tir lo ila. Lei tih thatna leh rannung thahna hlote hi a tlem thei ang ber hmang turin Sorkar chuan min ngen ta a nih hi14.

4. Bawlhhlawh sawngbawl hmasak :-
Khawvel Industries \hang zelin a ken tel, mamawh tih tlem aia mamawh nia inhriatna hian min run mek a. Industries lamin a siam chhuak tam tulh tulh a, mipui lamin kan nei tam tial tial a. Thil siam ekchhia leh kan mamawh tawh loh chuang tlai a tam ta hle. Khawvel hian harsatna a ngah tual tual a, tui ril/tui ekchhia, boruak (gas) tha lo, damdawi chhia (Chemicals) a tam hle. He harsatna hian min la chim lo a nih pawhin Polythene, Plastics, Battery chhia erawh kan khawtualah  a let rem rum a nih hi. Bawlhhlawh kan paih darh mai mai thin hi vei a, tihtlem a ngai tawh a ni. Chuti ang tur chuan kan bawlhhlawhte halral hmasa a, paih nghal tura tanlak hi kan ram leilung leh boruak hian a mamawh a, kan tana tih theih awlsam tak a ni bawk.

5. Ram hmangaihna rilru put :- Tharum leh thisen chhuah khera ram hi chhan a tul kher lo a, Thil siam te humhalh tura Pathianin i chhia leh tha hriatna a pek che hman kha i tih tur a ni. I chhia leh tha hriatna thiang tak kha i duhna avang maiin bumin awm tir lo la. Sangha vuak, luikal, ramsa pel leh Kristian nih a inhmeh lo ang bawk hian pawl hruaitu nih pawh a inhmeh hek lo. Kohhran thalaiten sumtuak nana ramsa pel, luikal an ching thin pawh hi sim a hun ta. Kristianna/sumtuak avanga thawk chhuak an nih pawhin sumtuakna dang zawn mai tur a ni. Ram hi a lo chhiat zel loh nana ven a, dai theu a tul ta

6. Dan zawm hi kan tih tur a ni :-
Danpui leh a kaihhnawihin tihtur min tuk a, humhalh tur pawhin mawhphurhna kan nei a ni. Environment humhalh kan thei lo a nih pawhin a tichhetute hnenah tal zirtir thin ila, thuneitute hnena thlen mai hi a kristian a, kan mawhphurhna a ni. Ramsa pelin i chhuak lo a ni mai thei a, ramsa pel thin sazawrh i lei a, i ei chhung chuan a lem chuang em ni le? Zu zawrh i duh lo a, i hua a nih chuan an Zu chu insak lovin, i lei lo mai tur a ni dawn lawm ni? A thenawm hnena zu in tur petu chung mah a pik chuan dan phal loh leisak a, ei thin chung pawh a pik ka ring ve \hin.

7.  Mipui ten tha kan thawh a hun :-Kum 1990 chho-ah khan Uttar Pradesh-a thingphun leh ramngaw siam chungchang zirchianna neih a ni a. Ramngaw humhalh tura pawimawh tak an hmuhchhuah chu Vantlang thingphun leh enkawl hi a ni a. Khua cheimawitu leh hnasiama hunawl hman thatna a ni tih lehkhathiam lo mipui tam zawk chuan an hre tawh a ni15. Mizoramah chuan a tual\o enkawl loh avangin thing hring leh ramngaw a awm a, kan phun chawp te hi kan la enkawl tawk lo hle niin a lang. TKP/KTP/YMA etc thingphun enkawla tha taka nung leh seilian a vang hle a nih hi. Enkawlna lamah tan lak a tul tawh hle. Chuti ang bawkin, Point hrang hrang kan tarlante pawh hi mipui kutthlak ngaihna anih avangin kan inzirtir uar a ngai hle a ni.

A khaikhawmna atan Pathian thu zawm hi a tawk :
Pathian thu kan tarlan te, leh kan sawi tak zawng zawng hlawhtlinna tur chu Pathian thupek leh min hrilh anga zawm a ni. Mihring mihrinna hmanga tihhlawhtlin theih loh leh kan ngaihdan ni lo pawh hi Amah avang chuan a inhnerem vek thei a ni. Kristian chuan ram dan inenkawlna chu a zawm mai tur a ni. Khawvelah chuan dan hnialna chu dan vek a ni a. Bible hnialkalhna tur behchhan erawh a awm lo. Bible chuan Thil siam te hnena chanchin tha hril turin min ti a, thah mang emaw tihchhiat emaw hi Chanchin tha hrilh dan tur a ni si lo a. Thil siam te hmangaih a, enkawl turin rilru thar i pu ang u. Pathian duhdan a ni si a.

Sawiho tur :
1. Thilsiamte humhalh nan kawng khat talin hma i la ve tawh em? I nei a nih chuan mite zirtirna atan (sharing of statement/testimony) memberte hnenah sawi tur i nei em?

2. Bawlhhlawh paihdan felfai zawka neih a nih theih nan TKP te hmalak dan tur a ruahman a theih em? A theih chuan a indawtin sawiho ila

3. “Mankind is fast zeroing on to the inescapable fallout of the ecological time bomb” tih hi sawizau nise.

End Notes :
1. Holy Bible, KJV
2. Environmental Geography, Saxena, H.M., Rwat Publication, New Delhi, 1999, Page 3
3. History of the Church in Mizoram, LLyod,J Meirion., Synod Publication, Aizawl 1991, Page 6
4. Mizoram History Journal, Volume XI, Mizo History Association, Aizawl, Nov 2010, Page 38
5. Elements of Constitution of India, Bhattacharyya, S.K,, Dass Publishing Concern, Calcutta, 1991(Pre University Notes Q&A 27)
6. Tunlai khawvel leh Kristian nun, Khiangte, Lianchhunga,Rev. , BCM Publication, Serkawn, 2013, Page 13
7. Zoram Today Weekly, Editor sawi
8. Competition Succes Review, June 2006, Mumbai, Page-50
9. Chawhchawrawi, Chuauthuama,Revd (Google ah pawh hmuh theihin a awm)
10. Physical Geography, Negi,B.S.,  SJ Publication, Meerut, 1996 Page 10
11. Environmental Geography, Saxena.HM, Rwat Publication, New Delhi, 1999 page 204
12. An Article published in the Cronicas de las tempios, 2002 April, Communication and Capacity Development Unit, Public Health Engineering Department Awareness campaign Material, 2012, slide 3
13. Ibid, slide 5-7
14. Communication and Capacity Development Unit, Public Health Engineering Department, Aizawl, Awareness Campaign Booklet, 2012
15. Social Forestry in India (Analysis of Various Models) Sen.D., Purandare.AP., Das, PK., NIRD Hyderabad, 1993 Page 149-150

*TKP Zobawk Pastor Bial hruaitu ten Thuzir tur atana ziak turin min sawm ve a, ka lawm hle. A nachang hria-in Rs 1000 lai hemia hman tur hi min pe a, Zobawk North leh South Pastor Bial inthen a nih hnu pawhin Paper sem chhuah a ni a, Unit ten an lo zir theia ka lawm hle.

2 comments:

  1. A tha hle mai. Environment humhalh nachang kan lo hriat tawk loh thin avangin, Khawpuiah mai ni lo, Thingtlang lamah te pawh tunhma zawng aiin tuihna a tlem a, harsatna kan tawk nasa zual zel chu a nih hi.

    ReplyDelete
  2. a dik khawp mai. A la vang tial tial ang a, contaminated a tam tual tual ang

    ReplyDelete