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07 August 2015

36/2015 Thanks Teacher; My Deva

Mass Media Exposure among Tribal Student Youth in Mizoram


Abstract

Today, we are living in the age of media and information.  The world lives on information. People are exposed to both print and electronic media. From the time we get up in the morning until we rest at night; either print media or electronic media anchors us.  In particular, youth are major consumers and audience of these media. Television is one of the most powerful media, which influences the youth. At present, it is very difficult to enumerate since almost all the remote corners are connected with satellite through dish antenna.  It is obvious that media are rapidly changing in the social life especially among youth. Therefore, the paper makes an attempt to explore the mass media exposure among Mizo youth of the age group from 14 to 24 years who studied in the selected three educational institutions namely St.Paul’s Higher Secondary School, Basileia Higher Secondary school and Women Polytechnique, Aizawl purposively by using structured questionnaire.  Further, the paper identifies the perceived factors influencing media exposure and also suggests some measures to use the mass media effectively among the tribal youth of Mizoram. 


Introduction
            Mizoram is situated on the North Eastern corner of India, having an area of 21081Sq.Km. The State is covered with mountains and hills.  It has a very good natural resources and a pleasant climate According to 2011 census, the total population of the state is 10, 91,014 are living in the state in which one third of the population comprises of youth ranging from the age group of 14 to 34 years. Youth is an important segment of our society. Youth denotes in our mind energetic, dynamic and resourcefulness. It also signifies the age group of the people in between childhood and adulthood. The definition of youth is not uniform; it varies from country to country.  The United Nations (1980) defined youth from the age 15 to 24 years.   The Youth Policy Act in India, for instance defines youth as the age group ranging from 13 to 35 years as youth. The present National Youth Policy, 2014 defines youth as 15 – 29 years.

For the present study the age 14- 24 years is taken as a youth. The population of youth in India (13-35 years) was 459 million, constituting about 38 per cent of total population of the country and it is expected to reach 574 million by 2020 (NYRS-2010). Youth in the age group of 15-29 years comprise 27.5% of the population (Census, 2011).

Today, we are living in the age of media and information.  The world lives on information. People are exposed to both print and electronic media. From the time we get up in the morning until we rest at night; either print media or electronic media anchors people.  In particular, youth are major consumers and audience of these media.    Television is one of the most powerful media, which influences the youth.  Andrew (1992) analyzed how media has changed the youth and governs the world.  It could be accepted that television and radio are the most powerful entertainment instrument for the youngsters.  He highlighted from the study that more than 4 lakh homes were wired to watch satellite channels.  At present, it is very difficult to enumerate since almost all the remote corners are connected with satellite through dish antenna.  It is obvious that media are rapidly changing in the social life especially among youngster.

Gosh, Subir (1991) studied Mass Media Today in the Indian Context and he said that the early days, human beings have communicated with their fellow beings by sending a message through any or more of their senses like sight, sound, touch, taste and smell. Modern civilization has devised almost magical methods to carry on messages even to the remotest corner of the world with astonishing speed, much beyond the widest imagination of the earlier generations. This method is known as mass communication and the means or the channel through which message are sending as mass media.

Yadava (1986) studied Mass Media and Social Change; there he said people were looking for alternatives or improvements in strategies for development and social change. Individual is important but social system is equivalent for his innovative behaviour and development processes and social change. In order to develop this new environment, modernization, traditional society and technical, economic, cultural, religions and other social aspects play a significant role.

            On the other hand, Sushila (2005) conducted a study with 200 youth in order to know the media and life style of them. The data reveled that more than half of the youth are watching T.V daily.  The media exposure plays a significant role for the change of their lifestyle, patterns of behaviour and dress codes.  The impact of media is very high on the cultural values of youth who are already in a stage of identity crisis, where they reject adult authority.  In addition to this changes are occurring in their culture, social institution and interpersonal relations.

Rationale of the Study
For the last two decades the usage of mass media has increased tremendously in our country.  Youth are very much exposed to both print and visual media like television, radio, magazine, newspaper, comics and other related youth magazines.  The usage of media among youth reached every nook and corner of our nation, even among the tribal youth. The youth life style is changing due to the impact of the mass media. In Mizoram, youth follow modern life style rather than traditional life style, their thought process behaviour pattern and aspirations are changing because of the impact mass media.  These changes are made due to the impact of modernization.  They are very much westernized due to various factors influenced by western missionaries, and other media. In addition to that today’s youth are very much exposed of mass media because they are living in the media world.  This mass media has got both advantages and disadvantages to develop their knowledge in all the fields.

 At the same time, it has its adverse effects that to in this internet world to see pornography pictures in the available cyber cafe. Apart from this Mizo youths and Mass Media has now related deeply, yet, no proper studies were conducted. There is a need to study in a particular area from the grass roots level about the adverse effects of Mass Media. The study focused on the relationships between Mass Media and Mizo youths and or how the Mizo youths are exposed to different kinds of Mass Media.

            Today’s youth are exposed to mass media like radio, television, newspapers, magazines, comics etc. There was rapid change in the social life of Mizos especially among young people due the various exposures they get in media. As we are aware that today’s nation is the youthful nation that the one third of the nation’s population comprises of youth population.   Thus, this paper makes an attempt to know the mass media exposure of Mizo Youth. 

Objectives
1. To study the profile and level of mass media exposure of Mizo youth.
2. To know the factors associating with mass media exposure and
3. To find out the impact of mass media on the social life of Mizo youth.

Methodology
            The present study is based on the primary data collected through structured questionnaire from the schools St. Paul’s Higher Secondary School, Basileia Higher Secondary School and Women Polytechnic Institute in Aizawl, which is the capital of Mizoram state.  The design of the present study is exploratory and a structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from the students by using systematic simple random sampling method.  From the each institutions sixty  samples were selected  for data collection. The collected data was process and analysed with help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) package.

Operational Definitions

Youth
In this present study the youth refers to the age group from 14 to 24 years, who are studying in the three educational institutions namely St. Paul’s Higher Secondary School, Basileia Higher Secondary School and Women Polytechnic, Aizawl.

Mass Media Exposure

The youth who have exposed to various media such as television, radio, newspaper, magazine and internet.
Results and Discussion
This section includes results and discussion of the collected data.  The data would be presented in Tables.
Profile of the Respondents
The Table1 shows profile of the respondents in terms age, gender, education, sub-tribe, and denomination. As regards to the gender less than three fourth (71.67 %) of respondents are females and they comprise more both in rural and urban areas. As regard to the age group, age of youth is grouped into two; 14-18 years and 19-24 years. There were more than half of (58.33%) the respondents belong to the age group of 14 – 18 years  and  more than one fourth (41.67%) percent of the respondents in the age group of 19 -24 years. Among the respondents, half of (50%) of them in both the age groups belong to rural area.
As regard, the education of respondents less than two third (65%) were in 12th class and the remaining more than one third (35%) of the respondents were in Polytechnique. As regards to the sub tribe was classified into five types namely; Lusei, Hmar, Ralte, Lai and Mara.  Among the respondents more than half (58.33%) of them belong to Lusei tribe and the least (10%) belong to Lai tribe. The table reveals that majority of therespondents are belong to sub tribe of Lusei. As regards to the denomination, in Christianity, there are different denominations. They are Presbyterian, Baptist, Salvation Army, Roman Catholic, United Pentecostal Church (UPC), Isua Krista Kohhran and Sabbath. Among the respondents more than two third (66.67%) of respondents belong to Presbyterian denomination and the least belong to Isua Krista Kohhran and Sabbath denominations.

Table 1: Profile of the Respondents

Sl.No

Characteristic

Urban
n = 32
Rural
n = 28
Total
N = 60
I

Gender





Male
11
(34.38)
6
(21.43)
17
(28.33)

Female
21
(65.63)
22
(78.57)
43
(71.67)
II
Age Group




14 - 18 Years
21
(65.63)
14
(50.00)
35
(58.33)

19 – 24 Years
11
(34.38)
14
(50.00)
25
(41.67)
III
Education




Class XII
26
(81.25)
13
(46.43)
39
(65.00)

Poly technique
6
(19.75)
15
(53.57)
21
(35.00)
IV
Sub Tribe




Lusei
22
(68.75)
13
(46.43)
35
(58.33)

Mara
0
(0.00)
3
(10.71)
3
(5.00)

Lai
2
(6.25)
4
(14.29)
6
(10.00)

Hmar
3
(9.38)
5
(17.86)
8
(13.33)

Ralte
5
(15.63)
3
(10.71)
8
(13.33)
V
Denomination




Presbyterian
25
(78.13)
15
(53.57)
40
(66.67)

Baptist
1
(3.13)
6
(21.43)
7
(11.67)

Salvation Army
1
(3.13)
3
(10.71)
4
(6.67)

Roman Catholic
3
(9.38)
2
(7.14)
5
(8.33)

United Pentecostal Church
1
(3.13)
1
(3.57)
2
(3.33)

Isua Krista Kohhran
1
(3.13)
0
0.00
1
(1.67)

Sabbath
0
(0.00)
1
(3.57)
1
(1.67)
Source: Computed                Figures in parentheses are percentages

Household Economic Characteristics
Table 2: Household Economic Characteristics of Respondents

Sl.No

Characteristic

Urban
n = 32
Rural
n = 28
Total
N = 60
I
Occupation of Father




Government Servant
18
(56.25)
16
(57.14)
34
(56.67)

Business
9
(28.13)
7
(25.00)
16
(26.67)

Cultivator
2
(6.25)
3
(10.71)
5
(8.33)

Driver
2
(6.25)
2
(7.14)
4
(6.67)

Church Worker
1
(3.13)
0
(0.00)
1
(1.67)
II
Occupation of  Mother




Unemployed
16
(50.00)
17
(60.71)
33
(55.00)

Government Servant
14
(43.75)
5
(17.86)
19
(31.67)

Business
2
(6.25)
3
(10.71)
5
(8.33)

Church Worker
0
(0.00)
1
(3.57)
1
(1.67)

Cultivator
0
(0.00)
2
(7.14)
2
(3.33)
III
Monthly Family Income(Rs)




Below 5000
5
(17.86)
3
(9.38)
8
(13.33)

5000 - 10000
12
(42.86)
11
(34.38)
23
(38.33)

10000 - 15000
4
(14.29)
7
(21.88)
11
(18.33)

15000 - 20000
1
(3.57)
4
(12.50)
5
(8.33)

20000 - 25000
5
(17.86)
5
(15.63)
10
(16.67)

Above 30000
1
(3.57)
2
(6.25)
3
(5.00)
IV

Residential Status





Rented
4
(14.29)
7
(21.88)
11
(18.33)

Owned House
15
(53.57)
21
(65.63)
36
(60.00)

Hostel
3
(10.71)
2
(6.25)
5
(8.33)

Quarters
6
(21.43)
2
(6.25)
8
(13.33)
Source: Computed                             Figures in parentheses are percentages
 

The Table 2 shows the household economic characteristics of the respondents.  The house hold economic characteristic includes father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, monthly income of the family, and residential status. As regards father’s occupation, more than half (56.67%) of their fathers were engaged in Government servant. There was no much difference between the urban and rural respondents father’s occupation in terms of government servant. The least percent of the respondents’ fathers’ occupation were church workers.  As regards to mother’s occupation majority of respondents mothers were Unemployed (55 %) and also was no much difference in urban and rural areas. On the other hand, most of respondent’s mothers were engaged in Business (8.33 %), Cultivation (3.33 %) and Church Worker (1.67 %). Economy is an important for family growth and development. There were more than one third (38.33%) of respondents who belong to income group of Rs.5000-10,000, in which more than one third (42.86%) belong to urban area and more than one third (34.38%) in rural area. Only 5 percent of the respondents’ monthly family income was above Rs.30000. As regards to residential status, shelter is one of the basic human needs, majority of the respondents both in Urban (53.57 %) and Rural (65.63 %) were live in their owned house. As a whole around two third (60 %) of the respondents were residing in their own shelter. Only 13.33 percent of the respondents reside in Government quarters.

Mass Media Exposure
Table 3: Mass Media Exposure: Mean Scores

Sl.No

Mass Media

Urban
Rural
Total
1
Television
1.53 ± 0.76
1.29 ± 1.01
1.42 ± 0.89
2
Radio
1.53 ± 0.76
1.61 ± 0.79
1.57 ± 0.77
3
Newspapers
1.75 ± 1.08
1.79 ± 1.10
1.77 ± 1.08
4
Internet
1.13 ± 0.98
1.14 ± 1.01
1.13 ± 0.98
5
Magazine
2.22 ± 1.26
2.32 ± 1.33
2.27 ± 1.29

Mass Media Exposure
1.63 ± 0.51
1.63 ± 0.44
1.63 ± 0.47

Levels of Mass Media Exposure




1
Low
13
(40.63)
11
(39.29)
24
(40.00)
2
Medium
11
(34.38)
13
(46.43)
24
(40.00)
3
High
8
(25.00)
4
(14.29)
12
(20.00)
Source: Computed Mean ± S.D                                       Figure in parentheses is Percentages

           The mass media exposure refers to the students who are exposed to radio, television, newspaper, magazine and internet. The Table 3 shows the mass media exposure: mean scores of the respondents.  The table reveals that there is difference between urban (34.38%) and rural (46.43%) areas at a medium level with regard to media exposure. 

Purpose of Print Media Exposure
            There are different print media people get exposed in this electronic society.  Students read newspapers, magazines and other comics etc.  These print media help the students to get various exposures and also motivate to gain knowledge in their respective fields. Here, the Table 4 shows the purpose of print media exposure of the respondents. Among the respondents majority three fourth (75%) in urban areas and half (50%) of in rural areas read newspapers in order to gain knowledge. Further, it was followed less than one fifth (15.63%) in urban and less than one third (32.14 %) rural areas read newspaper for the purpose of their personality development.

Table 4: Purpose of Media Exposure: Print Media

Sl.No

Media and Purpose
Urban
n = 32
Rural
n = 28
Total
N = 60
I
Newspaper




No Response
0
(0.00)
1
(3.57)
1
(1.67)

Persuasive Pressure
2
(6.25)
3
(10.71)
5
(8.33)

Knowledge
24
(75.00)
14
(50.00)
38
(63.33)

Personality Development
5
(15.63)
9
(32.14)
14
(23.33)

Entertainment
1
(3.13)
1
(3.57)
2
(3.33)
II
Magazine




No Response
0
(0.00)
1
(3.57)
1
(1.67)

Persuasive Pressure
1
(3.13)
2
(7.14)
3
(5.00)

Knowledge
11
(34.38)
11
(39.29)
22
(36.67)

Personality Development
15
(46.88)
12
(42.86)
27
(45.00)

Entertainment
5
(15.63)
2
(7.14)
7
(11.67)
Source: Computed    Figure in parentheses is Percentages
          With regards to the magazine, about half (45%) of the respondents read magazine for the purpose of developing their personality and one third (35%) of the respondents read magazine for gaining knowledge.

Purpose of Electronic Media
            Television is a powerful media, which influences the youth in both rural and urban area. The Table 5 shows purpose of media exposure on electronic media.  Among the respondents, more than one third (37.50%) in urban areas and nearly half (46.43%) in rural areas were watching television for the purpose of gaining knowledge.  The least percent of the respondents watch television due to persuasive pressure from their peers.

Sl.No

Media and Purpose

Urban
n = 32
Rural
n = 28
Total

N = 60

I
Television




No Response
2
(6.25)
3
(10.71)
5
(8.33)

Persuasive Pressure
2
(6.25)
1
(3.57)
3
(5.00)

Knowledge
12
(37.50)
13
(46.43)
25
(41.67)

Personality  development
4
(12.50)
3
(10.71)
7
(11.67)

Entertainment
12
(37.50)
8
(28.57)
20
(33.33)
II
Radio




No Response
3
(9.38)
0
(0.00)
3
(5.00)

Pressure
2
(6.25)
1
(3.57)
3
(5.00)

Knowledge
20
(62.50)
18
(64.29)
38
(63.33)

Personal development
7
(21.88)
8
(28.57)
15
(25.00)

Entertainment
0
(0.00)
1
(3.57)
1
(1.67)
III
Internet




No Response
1
(3.13)
3
(10.71)
4
(6.67)

Pressure
5
(15.63)
5
(17.86)
10
(16.67)

Knowledge
7
(21.88)
10
(35.71)
17
(28.33)

Personal Development
10
(31.25)
8
(28.57)
18
(30.00)

Entertainment
9
(28.13)
2
(7.14)
11
(18.33)
Source: Computed                Figure in parentheses is Percentages
                       
Radio is one of the cheapest electronic media and also it is a very important for rural people in Mizoram.   Among the respondents less than two third (62.50 %) in urban areas and less than two third (64.23 %) in rural areas were listening radio for gaining knowledge on various aspects. One fourth (25%) of the respondents listen to radio for the purpose of developing their personality development by hearing different speech programmes. Among the respondents more than one fourth (30%) of them use Internet for personal development and more than one fourth (28.33%) of the use Internet for   purpose of gaining knowledge. The least percent of the respondents did not give response on the exposure of internet use.

Perceived Factors Influencing Media Exposure (Print Media)
          The Table 6 shows the perceived factors influencing media exposure: print media. Among the respondents more than two third (67%) of them said that the perceived factor of influencing to read newspaper and magazines due to their personal interest and also there is no much difference in terms of the rural and urban areas. The next important perceived factor for influencing print media from the respondents was their family. By analyzing the data, we come to understand that urban youth have more exposure on print media rather rural youth.

Sl.No
Media and Factor
Urban
n = 32
Rural
n = 28
Total
N = 60

I

Newspaper use




No Response
0
(0.00)
1
(3.57)
1
(1.67)

Personal
22
(68.75)
18
(64.29)
40
(66.67)

Family
9
(28.13)
4
(14.29)
13
(21.67)

Teachers
1
(3.13)
2
(7.14)
3
(5.00)

Peer Pressure
0
(0.00)
3
(10.71)
3
(5.00)

II

Magazine use




Personal
18
(56.25)
21
(75.00)
39
(65.00)

Family
7
(21.88)
2
(7.14)
9
(15.00)

Teachers
5
(15.63)
2
(7.14)
7
(11.67)

Peer Pressure
2
(6.25)
3
(10.71)
5
(8.33)
  Source: Computed Figure in parentheses is Percentages

           
Perceived Factor Influencing Mass Media Exposure (Electronic Media)

Sl.No

Media and Factor

Urban
n = 32
Rural
n = 28
Total
N = 60
I
Television use




Personal
15
(46.88)
16
(57.14)
31
(51.67)

Family
8
(25.00)
9
(32.14)
17
(28.33)

Teachers
1
(3.13)
2
(7.14)
3
(5.00)

Peer pressure
8
(25.00)
1
(3.57)
9
(15.00)
II
Radio use




Not Mention
3
(9.38)
3
(10.71)
6
(10.00)

Personal
19
(59.38)
9
(32.14)
28
(46.67)

Family
7
(21.88)
10
(35.71)
17
(28.33)

Teachers
2
(6.25)
6
(21.43)
8
(13.33)

Peer pressure
1
(3.13)
0
(0.00)
1
(1.67)
III
Internet use




Not Mention
3
(9.38)
5
(17.86)
8
(13.33)

Personal
14
(43.75)
13
(46.43)
27
(45.00)

Family
3
(9.38)
3
(10.71)
6
(10.00)

Teachers
5
(15.63)
6
(21.43)
11
(18.33)

Peer Pressure
7
(21.88)
1
(3.57)
8
(13.33)
Source: Computed    Figure in parentheses is Percentages

Majority of the respondents (51.67 %) viewing TV without any control or pressure but by their own personal interest. There was difference between urban (46.88%) and rural (57.4%) respondents who watch TV for their own Personal. More than one fourth (28.33%) of respondents watch TV due to the factors of family influences. Radio was listened mainly due to the factors of personal in urban (59.38%) and rural (32.14%) and on the whole 46.67 percent. Internet is also used for personal interests and nearly half of respondents (45%) used for it. There is no difference between urban students (43.75) and rural (46.43%) students who use internet.

Frequency of Exposure to Different Types of TV Programmes
Today people are living in the Media world, there has been opening uncountable number of channels coming up everyday in the Television. Here, Table shows that frequency of exposure of different types of programmes, namely, Music, News special, Western, Sport, Love Story, Comedies, Quiz, Cartoon, Action-Adventure, Science, National News, Children, Documentaries, Advertisement Programmes are shown in the table. The Programmes can be classified into two broad categories viz. Education and
Sl.No
Programme
Urban
n = 32
Rural
N = 28
Total
N = 60
1
Music Programme
2.53 ± 0.76
2.50 ± 0.58
2.52 ± 0.68
2
News Special Programme
2.06 ± 0.72
2.21 ± 0.83
2.13 ± 0.77
3
Western Programme
2.06  ± 0.88
2.00 ± 0.77
2.03 ± 0.82
4
Sports Programme
2.06 ± 0.91
1.89 ± 0.83
1.98 ± 0.87
5
Love Story Programme
1.97 ± 0.65
1.96 ± 0.96
1.97 ± 0.80
6
Comedies Programme
2.00 ± 0.92
1.89 ±  0.69
1.95 ± 0.81
7
Quiz Programme
1.78 ± 0.71
1.82 ± 0.61
1.80 ± 0.66
8
Cartoon Programme
1.88 ± 0.94
1.46 ±  0.88
1.68  ± 0.93
9
Action Adventure Programme
1.50 ± 0.84
1.75 ± 0.89
1.62 ± 0.87
10
Science Programme
1.50 ± 0.88
1.64 ± 0.73
1.57 ± 0.81
11
National News Programme
1.63 ± 0.75
1.32 ± 0.90
1.48 ± 0.83
12
Children Programme
1.56 ± 1.08
1.39 ± 0.92
1.48 ± 1.00
13
Documentaries Programme
1.44 ± 0.91
1.43 ± 1.10
1.43 ± 1.00
14
Advertisement Programme
1.31 ± 1.00
1.14 ± 0.93
1.23 ± 0.96
Source: Computed                            Mean ± SD
Entertainment Programmes. Educational Programmes compose of News, Children, Documentaries Programmes and Entertainment Programmes includes Music, Western, Love Story, Comedies, Cartoon, Action-Adventure, and Advertisement Programmes.

            Among these programmes, the youth were very exposed to Music Programmes i.e. Standard Deviation of Table shows that 2.52 ± 0.68. As Mizos love singing very much, because they watch more  programme on music.Next majority of respondents would like to get knowledge on informational programme (2.13±0.77 S.D).

Watching Pornographic Movies
            The age group of 15-18 years, there were 40 percent respondents who never watch any Pornographic Movies. One fourth of respondents (25.71) have watched at least one Pornographic Movies. But it can be assumed that those who don’t want to say whether they watch or not are 34.29 percent.  This means that once they may watch and may feel shame, if it is like that, there will be 60 percent who watch Pornographic Movies. Therefore the significance level at one percent level is 9.51. Hence, there was no association between the age group and watching Pornographic Movies.

Sl.No
Factor
Watching Pornographic Movies
Total
No
Yes
No Opinion
I
Age Group





15 - 18 Years
14 (40.00)
9 (25.71)
12(34.29)
35(100)

18 and Above
20 (80.00)
2 (8.00)
3 (12.00)
25 (100)

Total
34(56.67)
11(18.33)
15(25.00)
60(100)

Chi-square
9.51*



II
Sex





Female
32 (74.42)
6 (13.95)
5(11.63)
43(100)

Male
2(11.76)
5 (29.41)
10(58.82)
17(100)

Total
34(56.67)
11(18.33)
15(25.00)
60(100)

Chi-square
20.88**



III
Locality





Rural
17 (60.71)
6 (21.43)
5 (17.86)
28 (100)

Urban
17 (53.13)
5 (15.63)
10 (31.25)
32 (100)

Total
34(56.67)
11(18.33)
15(25.00)
60(100)

Chi-square
1.50



Source: Computed Figures in parentheses are percentages
There were females 13.95 percent who watched Pornographic Movies and among male, there more than one fourth (29.41%) of the respondents who watched pornographic movies.  Therefore, the significance level at 5 percent level is 20.88. Hence there is no relationship between gender and watching pornographic movies. Based on Locality, majority of rural and urban youths never watched Pornographic Movies (56.67 Percent).

Conclusions and Suggestions
The research was conducted to study the Mass Media Exposure of the Mizo Youth in three educational institutions in order to know the students various levels of media exposure in the Mizo society.  In this contemporary society even the six month unborn baby is also exposed to music and television in the mother’s womb.  Therefore, the influence of mass media is very much in this present society. Keeping in view of these things the researcher wants to know that the levels of mass media exposure among the youth.  Today in all the houses we can see either television or radio and any other print media.  From the findings the researcher wants to give some suggestion in order to use the mass media for constructive and educative purpose rather than entertainment.

In this study the researcher studied three educational institutions and found out that majority (78%) of the respondents come from rural background and most of the respondents belongs to the age group of 15 to 18 years i.e. 65 percent.  The respondent’s exposure to Mass Media is not high, and 40 percent of the respondents were each in low and medium level.  The various levels of Mass Media Exposure and its purpose the respondents said that  (63.33%) read newspaper for gaining knowledge, nearly half of respondents (45%) uses magazines for their personal development, and over all knowledge development is the main  purpose of  Media Exposure among respondents in T.V. (41.67%), Radio (63.33%) and Internet (28.33%). This research helped the researcher to know the various levels of mass media exposure, associating factors and the impact on their social life style. From the objectives the researcher comes to know that the mass media exposure of respondents was watching more Music Programmes of Television than other Programmes, News and Western Programmes follows. Educational Programmes of Television like News Special, Quiz, Science, National News, Children, Documentaries ranked lower as an average than Entertainment Programmes

In India Mass media exposure has been increasing since one decade the various media like television, radio, newspaper, magazine, comics and other print media.  At present the Government of India has given one television to each panchayat and also established libraries in local self-government.  A part from that every nook and corner Internet centers are available.  So that the researcher wants to known Mass media exposure of Mizo students

·         It is very important to educate the students about the usage of Internet services in the educative system especially in the post Matriculation level. 
·         With regard to the exposure to media, proper guidance is necessary to the students in educational institutions from their teachers. 
·         Apart from this, good educative programmes should be broadcasted in the television and radio in a more convenient time for the students and also if any informative programmes like model question paper of the Board Examinations of Higher Secondary and other national level quiz programmes could be made available by their television which they have in the school for the students.
·         Most of the students watching television in their homes roughly two to three hours per day.  Giving awareness to their parents can reduce this and also the school and other educational institutions should take initiative to increase the reading habit of their students.
  • Moreover, the educational institutions should conduct a training programme on the effective usage of mass media in the school level. Besides that the educational institutions can conduct sex education programmes to the students through that awareness can be created to some extent in order to avoid of watching pornographic movies.

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-  C. Lalneihkima[1] :  Former student, Department of Social Work, Mizoram University, Aizawl – 796 004 email ID:helplife07@gmail.com

C. Devendiran[2] Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, Mizoram University, Aizawl – 796 004 email ID:devbhupa@gmail.com

and Muthulakshmi[3] Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration, Mizoram University – 796 004 email ID:muthumzu@gmail.com

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